The structure of the lafif resembles the jury in nearly every detail as it appeared in England in the twelfth century. If one compares the [eight] characteristics of the English jury with the characteristics described above for the Islamic jury, the Islamic jury (1) was a body of twelve witnesses drawn from the neighborhood and sworn to tell the truth, (2) who were bound to give a verdict, (3) unanimously (and if twelve did not agree, more would be found until there were twelve who agreed), (4) about matter from what they had personally seen or heard, (5) binding on the judge, (6) to settle the truth concerning facts in a case, (7) between ordinary people, and (8) obtained as of right by the plaintiff.
“… ‘Umar’s conversion was an historic event. It deeply shocked everybody in Makkah. The Muslims were jubilant and the unbelievers dismayed. Until ‘Umar’s conversion, the Muslims could not hold their prayers in public. Now, after the accession of ‘Umar to Islam, they held them in the courtyard of the ancient sanctuary. Entering Arqam’s house, heContinue reading “The First Muslim Public Demonstration in History”
By Saad Salloum BAGHDAD — The police killing of George Floyd and the ensuing protests in the United States are being used by Iraqi activists to raise awareness about the rights of African-Iraqis. At the same time, many Iraqi protesters have drawn parallels to the US movement, criticizing the way the Iraqi authorities have beenContinue reading “The killing of George Floyd sparks controversy over African-Iraqi rights”