How Islamic Architecture Shaped Europe

Wren acknowledges the European debt to what he calls ‘Saracen’ architecture twelve times…he explains how his study of Europe’s Gothic cathedrals had led him to believe that Gothic architecture was a style invented by the Arabs, imported by the returning Crusaders, and before that via Muslim Spain. ‘Such buildings,’ he concludes, ‘have been vulgarly called Modern Gothick, but their true appellation is Arabic, Saracenic, or Moresque.’

The Islamic Origins of the Jury System

The structure of the lafif resembles the jury in nearly every detail as it appeared in England in the twelfth century. If one compares the [eight] characteristics of the English jury with the characteristics described above for the Islamic jury, the Islamic jury (1) was a body of twelve witnesses drawn from the neighborhood and sworn to tell the truth, (2) who were bound to give a verdict, (3) unanimously (and if twelve did not agree, more would be found until there were twelve who agreed), (4) about matter from what they had personally seen or heard, (5) binding on the judge, (6) to settle the truth concerning facts in a case, (7) between ordinary people, and (8) obtained as of right by the plaintiff.